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    欄目導航
    期刊信息

    刊名: 課程.教材.教法
    主辦: 人民教育出版社;課程教材研究所
    周期:  月刊
    出版地:北京市
    語種:  中文
    開本:  大16開
    ISSN: 1000-0186
    CN:   11-1278/G4
    郵發代號: 2-294
    復合影響因子: 0.989
    綜合影響因子: 0.533
    創刊時間:1981
    您現在的位置:首頁 > 教學研究

    教學研究

    以地理視角看當涂多橋


    當涂縣位于安徽省東南部,東臨江蘇省溧水縣、高淳縣,西瀕長江與和縣相對,南接蕪湖市、蕪湖縣、宣城縣,北連馬鞍山市及江蘇省江寧縣。當涂境內多橋,因橋而名的村鎮就有百余個,如新橋、龍山橋、石橋、馬橋、伏龍橋……,以“楊橋”為地名有六處,以“雙橋”為地名有七處。
        這些或隱或現于村頭路旁、帶有“橋”字的地名,不僅飽含當涂人對橋的向往、每座橋的過往傳奇,還印證了當涂悠久繁榮的水文化。
        當涂的古橋種類繁多,像石拱橋、竹橋、木橋、浮橋等應有盡有,自古有說“當涂雖小,三塔兩浮橋”即是佐證。如今,現代版的橋如雨后春筍般涌現,以姑溪一河為例,在短短十余年間,在原有兩座橋梁的基礎上,迅速飛騰起四座跨河新橋:姑溪新橋、凌云大橋、蕪馬高速公路大橋、護河大橋。不論城區還是鄉間,河汊縱橫,新橋如虹,像馬鞍山長江公路大橋、九井山大橋、烏溪大橋、湖陽大橋、襄城河大橋等不勝枚舉。可以說,古橋蓄深度,今橋映速度;河障變通途,無橋不當涂。水是當涂的靈性,橋則是當涂地域的紐帶,橋是當涂不可或缺的地理坐標,是當涂悠久燦爛水文化的標志。
        當涂何故多橋?下面,筆者從地理的角度試探性地進行分析。
        一、自然地理因素
         1.地形因素。當涂地處長江下游平原,地形以平原為主,平原之中點綴著些許的丘陵,地勢低平,地面落差極微,故坎與坎之間、田與田之間的低洼地帶易于蓄水涵水,這是當涂許多地方塘塘成片、河汊相連的原因。
         2.皖江水系的滋養。大河有水小河滿,長江在當涂的西側浩瀚北流,當涂段干流河闊水深,水量豐盈,支流多而惠澤,塘港密布,從空中俯瞰當涂:河汊縱橫交錯,湖蕩星羅棋布,且當涂的河汊長年幾乎無干涸。
         3.氣候的滋潤。當涂沐亞熱帶濕潤氣候,夏季受太平洋副高壓氣團影響,盛行東風和東南風,初夏,冷、暖氣團交鋒頻繁形成降水集中的梅雨期。故當涂的雨水充沛,雨水對河流的補給量很大。
        無水不橋,無河不橋,橋應水而生,橋因水而美,水因橋而利,河因橋通達,由此可見,橋與河汊相伴而生,相伴而行。當涂水多,自然橋多;當涂多大河,自然多大橋。
        二、人文地理因素
        得天獨厚的自然地理條件孕育了當涂的溝渠縱橫、水鄉澤國之勢,自古以來,當涂百姓既享受著良田萬頃賜予的豐收喜悅,又在勞動中尋覓著應對眾多河汊困擾之策。人的衣食住行,生產和交際,都離不開水,水不僅最有用,而且是地面上最柔美的東西。俗話云,性情如水,水傍山而行,依勢而走,不違抗,不執拗。當涂的山水滋養了當涂人的靈性,水給當涂人不僅帶來了諸多便利和財富,還修煉了當涂人的真性情。所以,當涂人具有清麗委婉,外巧內慧的特質。
        為生活、生產和交流計,勤勞智慧的當涂人想出了有效的三招。
         1.古代的填湖造地,既解決了水患,緩解了水情,又陡生出許多良田,可謂一舉兩得。如,皖南第一大圩──大公圩本是古丹陽湖的一部分,是先民們填湖造田而成的(當然這種行為現在不可取了)。
         2.依水而筑,環水而居,伴水而作,以水怡情。譬如,大公圩浩大若盤,河渠鑲邊,而圩內良田萬頃,溝汊池塘宛如一粒粒銀珠散落其間,可謂浩浩者水也,育育者魚也。塘塘相連,田塘相偎,村頭接塘口,田在村四周,這是大公圩地面的寫照,塘、田、村是這里最緊要的三種坐標,也是由低及高處處撒滿美的三個階梯,令人美不勝收。
         3.遇水搭橋、船橋相濟。船橋相濟是人們的夢想和期盼,也是解決河障水礙的最高境界。客觀上說,橫亙在兩岸的河水和田村之間的港汊也常常使當涂人發愣和無奈。村屯之間的闊塘和大汊給民間交流帶來許多困惑,無論勞作和走親戚都不方便。面對水的阻隔,人們曾經嗟嘆過,也許隔河喊話,也許兩岸傳情,也許因河結怨……,后來想到了用船筏等擺渡。當人們掌握一定的造橋技術后,才敢往橋這方面去想。于是,追求人地和諧的能工巧匠向河汊溝渠發起了挑戰,橋應運而生了。
        如今,在當涂農村的許多地方,往往能欣賞到如此美的畫卷:人在橋上行,船在橋下穿,綠水含倒影,橋綴村東頭。以橋的理念構筑空間,用橋駕馭河汊,化不利為有利,把河塘的優勢用到極致,這就是當涂人的智慧。
        從當涂精美絕倫的古橋到氣勢如虹的今橋,印證了當涂演變與發展的歷史。如今,隨著經濟力量的壯大和科技的創新,當涂的橋愈造愈美,愈造愈大,愈造愈有科技含量,例如,被譽為“一橋架南北,天塹變通途”的馬鞍山長江公路大橋,右汊斜拉橋,為國內首座拱形三塔兩跨斜拉橋;左汊懸索橋,主跨跨度在世界同類橋梁中位居第一,首次實現了三塔兩跨懸索橋跨徑由百米向千米的重大突破。低緩的平原中,在村野田間佇立著各色古橋,下面是脈脈悠悠的流水。看如今,湍急而乖巧的河汊上,架起如彩虹般的高架橋,如插上凌飛的翅膀,使得當涂人所到之處酣暢淋漓,快捷便利。
        在地理人眼里,橋就是地面一個特定的地理坐標,既是固定歷史的滄桑的印證,也是持續進步的水文化發展的標簽。不論地面有多大的變遷,古橋還是一段歷史符號。當涂的每一條河流都有自己的個性,而每一座橋梁都有自己的一段故事。不論是跨河大橋,還是橫溪小橋,都是一個個有生命意義的符號,有它的自古及今的一段歷史,甚至有它一段精美的傳說。有“當涂第一橋”之稱的葉家橋,橫跨在丹陽河上,是建于明朝弘治年間的石拱橋,是舊時當涂通往溧水的通衢要道,其雕刻欄板相當精美。它不僅沐浴一段悠遠的歷史,而且是古交通狀況的縮影,是明朝建筑文化的印證。
        即使是近現代橋,人們也如數家珍,如視瑰寶,每每漫步于橋,把玩于橋,或精心觀望,或駐足嘻嘻。橋因水而生靈性,水因橋的俯瞰而生亮麗,水是動態的,而橋是靜穆的,兩者相得益彰,相映成趣。面對一座座古橋,當涂人還能把玩它的歷史淵源和文化價值,豈不更美?古橋知歲月,能讀懂古橋的人方能讀懂當涂的滄桑與巨變。所以,當涂人擅于造橋、用橋,也極度愛橋、護橋。人們以橋為念,以橋為榮,以橋養心,以橋怡情,形成了人橋合一的理念。
                                                                        2014-09-21  人教網


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