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    欄目導航
    期刊信息

    刊名: 課程.教材.教法
    主辦: 人民教育出版社;課程教材研究所
    周期:  月刊
    出版地:北京市
    語種:  中文
    開本:  大16開
    ISSN: 1000-0186
    CN:   11-1278/G4
    郵發代號: 2-294
    復合影響因子: 0.989
    綜合影響因子: 0.533
    創刊時間:1981
    您現在的位置:首頁 > 教學研究

    教學研究

    一方水土養一方人


     一、地理環境影響人類容貌
        按照膚色,地球上分三個主要人種:黃種人、白種人、黑種人。膚色是色素積淀的多少決定的。低緯度光照強烈,黑色素積淀得多,因而是黑色人種;高緯度地區的白種人因為陽光微弱,黑色素積淀得很少,故為白色人種;中緯度介于中間,故膚色為黃色。白種人的眼睛是藍灰色的,其原因是白色人種的源地位于太陽高度角很低的北歐地區,老鼠的眼睛就是藍灰色,也就是說藍灰色的眼睛適應光線微弱的環境。如果你生活在同樣陰暗的地方,你與動物的眼色也一樣,這就反映了地理環境對人的影響,當然,這種演化可能需要一個較長的時期。
        對于頭發,黑人黑色蓬松的卷發可以對頭皮起很好的保護作用,不至于遭受過熱陽光的灼烤。白種人的頭發適應潮濕的氣候,是橢圓截面的,自然卷曲。黃種人介于中間,頭發的截面是圓柱形的,現代女孩把自己的頭發弄成黃色的卷發,這是違背自然規律的做法。
        對于鼻子,歐洲人鼻子的典型特點,一個是長,一個是前端帶鉤,因為那里緯度高,氣候冷,要把冷空氣預熱一下,否則進入肺部不舒服,帶點鉤可以阻擋過量的冷空氣進入。非洲人的鼻子寬大,是為了把熱量及時交換出去,生活在東南亞地區人種也是這樣,可見這是典型的生物學特征。
        再說中國,北方姑娘臉色比較紅潤,來自于冷空氣的刺激,北方寒冷天氣,使得人的臉部毛細血管增多,隨著血流量的加大,臉部皮膚得到較多的營養,加速了新陳代謝,使其紅潤。江浙地區的南方人臉色偏黃,缺乏強烈的冷熱季節調節,使臉部毛細血管減少所致。
        二、地理環境影響人類身高
        人類身高的地域差異主要是“高緯高于低緯”。大家知道,東北人的身材較高,而且塊頭也大,這是因為高大身材單位體積對應的表面積小,利于御寒。因此大自然篩選出了一批高大的東北人。同樣的道理,身材矮小的人單位體積對應的表面積大,利于散熱,這也就是生活在低緯度的人身材矮小的原因。按照這個道理,我國海南島的人應該身材最為矮小,但事實是四川人、貴州人最矮,為什么呢?萬物生長靠太陽,四川、貴州的光照少,首先骨骼發育不良,再加上食物以營養比較低的大米為主,而且又因氣溫較高而消耗比較多,所以四川、貴州人身高最矮。
        有意思的是,人類食物的營養價值也是高緯高于低緯,如蒙古高原的主食以肉和奶為主,黃河中下游地區的主食以小麥和雜糧為主,長江中下游的主食以稻米為主,嶺南和東南亞地區的主食以稻米和薯類為主。
        最后從人的生長素分泌來說,生長素的分泌有兩個特點,一是晚上睡熟了生長素才會分泌,二是深夜一兩點分泌最旺盛。低緯度地區終年炎熱,晚上一兩點還難以入睡,生長素分泌較少。高緯度地區則不存在這樣的問題。
        中國人的特征:北高南低,北胖南瘦,北白南黑,這些基本上都和地理環境有關。
        歐洲多海洋性氣候,地面常年濕漉漉的,貴婦人的長褲腳經常被打濕,因而有人發明了高跟鞋。
        三、地理環境影響人類服飾
       (一)帽子和頭飾與地理環境的關系
        最有意思的是,大體處在同一緯度帶上的陜西、山西、河北、山東的帽子和頭巾的變化。陜北地區,男人用一條羊肚子毛巾包頭,打結在前額頭;到山西、河北南部男人把羊肚子毛巾包在頭上,在后面系結;到了山東沿海,女同志把一塊方巾對折,內套一截鐵扎片或封存箱帶,使頭巾在額前挺括,伸出一段距離,系結在嘴巴下面。
        陜北地表缺乏植被,冬春風速很大,人們用羊肚子毛巾包頭,是為了防止塵土弄臟了頭發和御寒。山西中南部,人們用毛巾包頭系結在腦后,比較寬松舒適,是因為晉中南多盆地,風沙小一些,氣溫稍高的緣故。冀中南、魯西北位于太行山脈與魯中南山地丘陵西北角之間的狹窄地區,是冬夏季風的通道,“狹管效應”使這里風速較大,塵土較多,故這里的人們也用毛巾包頭且系結在腦后。
        山東沿海女人頭巾的功能是防曬、防風、防沙。沿海地區大氣較潔凈,太陽輻射強,女人的頭巾可以遮住陽光保護臉部。瀕海地帶多海陸風,女人包上頭巾,以免風吹亂了頭發,也可以防止沙塵弄臟了頭發。
        還有一個典型的案例是大理。“下關風、上關花、蒼山雪、洱海月”是該地的四大勝景。下關又名“風城”,風大的緣由來自于山“海”的組合。洱海呈南北走向,西面是蒼山,東面是窮山,下關位于洱海的南面,長達40公里的洱海的“狹管效應”,加之湖面阻力很小,使得洱海及岸邊的風速很大,其中的下關最甚。大理的氣候四季如春,按理說人們不用戴帽子或頭巾御寒,但因風大,男子多用白布包頭,而女子的頭圍則護住了最易受冷的額頭,更是適應了這里的環境特征。
       (二)袍子、鞋子與地理環境的關系
        身穿長袍,足蹬靴子是草原民族的服飾特色。高寒大風地區的人穿上袍子,再系上腰帶,上下空氣不易對流,十分保暖。最有意思的是藏族人穿袍子露出一只胳膊,這是因為高原晝夜溫差太大所致。相反,日本人的和服、東南亞的紗籠、阿拉伯人的黑袍是為了寬松散熱。
        穿靴子不僅是御寒和上下馬利索,更重要的是靴子適應穿行在戈壁、沙漠上,有利于保護腿腳。木屐是為多雨地濕而備,在日本和中國的南方尤其多見,在塑料鞋沒有出現之前,浴室內均備有木板鞋,典型的木鞋則出現在低地之國的荷蘭。歐洲多海洋性氣候,地面常年濕漉漉的,貴婦人的長褲腳經常被打濕而顯得不雅,因而有人發明了高跟鞋。
       (三)裙子與地理環境的關系。
        裙子是典型的為了適應炎熱氣候區天氣的產物。地理環境絢麗多彩的地方,裙子十分艷麗。中國廣西、泰國等地的女人經常要涉河而過,故多穿筒裙,邊向河中走,邊往上卷裙子,過了河中心之后又逐漸放下來,十分有趣。
        四、地理環境影響人類食物
        下面要講的是東辣西酸南甜北咸。我們先說西酸,西酸大家首先會想到山西醋,其實整個黃土高原地區大家都愛吃醋。據說閻錫山的士兵交槍不交醋葫蘆,山西女孩陪嫁必須要陪幾個醋壇子。為什么山西人愛吃醋?原因是黃土高原土壤含鈣量太高,食入過量的鈣,易得膽結石等疾病,因而人們就選擇了醋來中和。
        另外特別能吃醋的地方是云貴高原。貴州在北京開的酸菜魚館有這樣的招貼畫,說貴州人“三天不吃酸,走路老打竄”就特別說明問題。云貴高原是石灰巖地貌,石灰巖的化學成分是碳酸鈣,水和食品中含有眾多的鈣,所以要用酸來中合。顯而易見,是地理環境導致了黃土高原和云貴高原的人特別愛吃醋。
        第二個是東辣。中國有個順口溜,講“江西人不怕辣,湖南人辣不怕,四川人怕不辣”,可見四川人是最能吃辣的。其實辣是潮濕氣候的產物。過度的潮濕,毛孔閉合,人體內需要排泄的物質難以排出,多陰雨的天氣,也會使得人的情緒低落,吃上一次麻辣火鍋,冒一身大汗,身體和情緒都得到排解,十分舒服。四川是蜀犬吠日的地方,江西和湖南各有一個大湖,均是氣候過度潮濕的地方。
        至于南甜北咸,南方的主食為大米,糖分較少,人們需要補充糖分;北方的氣候導致蔬菜較少,要多放些鹽來彌補蔬菜的匱乏。
                                                                               2014-08-26  人教網


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